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Evaluation of PET/clinical Parameters to Predict Toxicity in Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy Patients with Relapsed/refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

C Uche*, C Wright, J Baron, M Lariviere, A Barsky, D Miller, A Maity, J Plastaras, Y Xiao, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

Presentations

(Sunday, 7/12/2020)   [Eastern Time (GMT-4)]

Room: AAPM ePoster Library

Purpose: Early results using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy in relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma suggest potential cures in otherwise incurable patients. However, CAR T-cell therapy is associated with significant side effects, namely cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity. We report predictive models developed to determine the association between 18F-FDG-PET/CT quantitative parameters that predict for CAR T-cell toxicities using the two available commercial CAR T-cell products.


Methods: The metabolic parameters from 18F-FDG-PET/CT data were evaluated by two physicians using our institutional framework to grade treatment outcome for 31 patients. The PET/CT parameters were metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). MTV was defined as the sum of metabolic volumes with an uptake = 1.5 × SUVmean?+?2 standard deviations of the liver uptake. TLG was computed as the SUVmean of all active tumor voxels multiplied by the total MTV. Clinical parameters include CAR T-cell product-type and age. A machine learning (RUSEnsemble) model was developed to test the parameters as predictors for CRS and neurotoxicity. The model was validated by ten-fold cross-validation. The prognostic abilities of the parameters were analyzed using ROC curves and several classification metrics.


Results: On univariate analysis, we identified that product-type (AUC = 0.74) and MTV (AUC = 0.86) were correlated to CRS; whereas the occurrence of CAR T-cell therapy toxicity, CRS (AUC = 0.59), age (AUC = 0.65) and product-type (AUC = 0.63) were moderately correlated with neurotoxicity. On multivariate analysis, the combination of all predictive parameters showed a clear relationship with CRS (AUC = 0.70), but no relationship with neurotoxicity (AUC = 0.39).


Conclusion: This study demonstrates the promise of PET/CT and clinical parameters to predict CAR T-cell therapy-related toxicities. Future work should be undertaken to confirm our findings in a larger patient cohort, to further characterize the incidence and management of toxicities.

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Funding Support, Disclosures, and Conflict of Interest: Funding Information: 2U24CA180803-06(IROC), 2U10CA180868-06(NRG)

Keywords

Quality Assurance, Risk, Radiation Therapy

Taxonomy

IM/TH- Image Analysis (Single Modality or Multi-Modality): Computer-aided decision support systems (detection, diagnosis, risk prediction, staging, treatment response assessment/monitoring, prognosis prediction)

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