Room: Track 4
Xiaohong Joe Zhou, PhD – Diffusion MRI
Following its success in early detection of cerebral ischemia, diffusion MRI has been increasingly used in the clinic with a broad range of applications spanning from neurologic disorders to cancer, and from the brain to the body. These applications are propelled by the development of diffusion models and significant advance in diffusion MRI acquisition strategies. This lecture will review recent technical developments and clinical applications of diffusion MRI, with a special emphasize on how a clinical medical physicist can help translating diffusion MRI into the clinic. In this lecture, we will first describe how molecular diffusion information can be encoded into the MR signal in several common pulse sequences. Second, we will provide an overview of diffusion models that can be used to relate MRI measurement to biologically relevant tissue properties, such as cellularity, vascularity, and microstructures. Third, we will discuss several practical issues, including imaging protocols, motion management, reproducibility and reliability, and quality assurance. Lastly, we will highlight a few emerging applications that will likely impact clinical practice in the near future.
1. To understand commonly-used diffusion MRI pulse sequences in the clinic;
2. To understand the common diffusion models in diffusion MRI analysis;
3. To be able to implement diffusion imaging protocols and conduct quality assurance.
Youngkyoo Jung, PhD – Perfusion MRI
Blood perfusion is a physiological function that delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissue. Perfusion can be assessed with MRI using an exogenous contrast agent or blood itself. The MRI techniques using a gadolinium based contrast agent include dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. In contrast, arterial spin labeling MRI is a technique using blood as an endogenous contrast agent. Each perfusion MRI technique is based on its unique physical characteristics and, therefore, can be used to derive different perfusion-related parameters. A perfusion MRI method can be chosen depending on physiological parameters that relates to a certain pathologic condition.
1. To understand physiological and physical principles of perfusion MRI methods;
2. To understand perfusion models and parameters derived from different techniques;
3. To be able to choose and implement the relevant perfusion MRI method in the clinic.
Ho-Ling Anthony Liu, PhD – Functional MRI
Functional MRI (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has been widely applied in clinical imaging studies for the management of neurological diseases. In particular, it is a promising tool for presurgical functional mapping of eloquent brain areas to help maximizing the lesion resection while preventing post-operative functional deficits. Common task-based fMRI paradigms used in the clinic include motor, language and visual stimulations. In addition, resting-state fMRI is an emerging technique applied to map functional networks for patients with limited task performance, as well as to localize seizure onset zones for epilepsy patients undergoing surgery. This lecture will provide an overview of the biophysical mechanism of fMRI, the implementation and limitations of fMRI in the clinic, and the optimization and quality assurance of the clinical fMRI.
1. To understand the basic principle of fMRI and hardware/software requirements for a presurgical fMRI service.
2. To be able to implement and optimize clinical fMRI protocols and data analysis.
3. To be able to conduct quality assurance and understand the limitations and artifacts in clinical fMRI.
Samuel A. Einstein, PhD – MR Spectroscopy
MR spectroscopy (MRS) is a rapidly-expanding clinical technique for non-invasive assessment of tissue metabolites. MRS has proven to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis, monitoring, and evaluation of lesions, neoplasms, and metabolic disorders in the brain and other regions of the body. This segment will begin by presenting the basic physics of MRS, clinically-available MRS pulse sequences, and the many clinical applications of MRS. Recommended analysis approaches for the clinic will then be discussed along with common MRS artifacts. Subsequently, the best practices for MRS QA will be described. Finally, we will introduce non-proton MRS, hyperpolarized MRS, and spectroscopic imaging.
1. Understand the basic physics, acquisition techniques, and clinical applications of MR spectroscopy.
2. Understand the different methods for analyzing MR spectra.
3. Identify common artifacts and be able to implement suggested MR spectroscopy QA.